Assalamu alaikum wa rehmatullahi wa barakatuh
1.Some Quranic terms
4.Anterior Insular Cortex
5.Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Rooh-Soul.Very less details are given to mankind according to Quran.
Nafs– The alive being which respires.It typically involves the psychology and mentality.It could be good or bad.
Hawah-That part of soul and nafs,the mind and psychology which has nothing to do with right or wrong.
Eyes,ears and skin-Sensory organs which carry information from the outer environment to the brain for further programming such as analysis,appropriate action memory etc.
Heart-It is usually thought as a blood pumping machine.However according to Quran its role in developing a personality and changing the minds and actions,is emphasized.
These roles were assumed to be carried out only by the brain,up till now.
Here,I am discussing the Greater and Most important role of Heart,which is pointed out in Quran many times.
Making it easy,it starts from 5 senses (sight and hearing usually mentioned in Quran) or recalled memory.
The signals go to the brain and then the heart + other organs.
The response of heart and some other organs,send signals to that part of brain which controls
1.The sense of right and wrong (Halal and Haram)
2.Error detection and correction (The awareness of sin and repenting )
3.Sense of one self (Accountability)
5.Consciousness (Heart and Logical analysis)
6.Improvement of behavior (Thus those with a seal on heart could not improve)
The stimulus from
-5 senses OR
Reaches to the brain knocking the gates
– Amygdala AND
– Orbitofrontal cortex /Brain stem
(which are trigger sites for emotion.
The sites of emotion execution include the hypothalamus, the basal forebrain and nuclei in the brainstem tegmentum.)
The stimulus Reaches Directly to the
– Anterior Cingulate Cortex.
From the amygdala and brain stem,Only the visceral response i.e response of Heart and other viscera is represented.
Visceral sensations reach
– The Anterior insular cortex
From there to
– The Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Now note the path again.
The response from
Heart (and other viscera) to Anterior Insular Cortex (Brain) to Anterior Cingulate Cortex (Brain)
It is from Heart to Brain
Now the specific parts of brain responding to the visceral signals from Heart:
1.Interoceptive awareness :Awareness of the inner senses i.e those normally stimulated from within the body.Involved in cognitive-emotional processes. Read more about Interoception
Understanding The True demands of soul.
Also involved in sensing the oncoming changes.Read More
There’s also evidence that this “heart brain” can receive and respond to stimuli before the cranial brain processes it, like a split-second “body premonition.” Researchers published a study in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine that correlated the heart-rate variability of participants with a “pre-stimulus.”
In other words, the study subjects’ heartbeats were intuitively sensing an oncoming change. Essentially, their hearts “felt” the future before it happened. And even though the brain and body as a whole are involved in processing that stimulus, it appears the heart gets there first
2.Motor control :Hand-and-eye motor movement,swallowing,gastric motility,and speech articulation.Motor control and Research links it to the capacity for long and complex spoken sentences.
3.Homeostasis : Controlling the delicate balance of the internal conditions of the body.
5.Social emotions :Disgust to sight of contamination and bad odor.Processing of norm violations,emotional processing,empathy, and orgasms
6.Emotions : Emotional feelings, including maternal and romantic love, anger, fear, sadness, happiness, sexual arousal, disgust, aversion, unfairness, inequity, indignation, uncertainty,disbelief, social exclusion, trust, empathy, sculptural beauty, a ‘state of union with God’ etc.
7.Salience :Emotional salience and general salience system i.e. environmental monitoring, response selection, and skeletomotor body orientation.
Note it that these responses and factors are controlled by the response of Heart.
1.Error detection and conflict monitoring : Involved in Error detection and active during correct response.Receives information about a stimulus, selects an appropriate response, monitors the action, and adapts behavior if there is a violation of expectancy.
The brainic sense of right and wrong,the conscience and the appropriate behavior for which the signals are coming from Heart.
2.Reward-based learning theory : Detects and monitors errors, evaluates the degree of the error, and then suggests an appropriate form of action to be implemented by the motor system.
3.Role in consciousness : Better emotional awareness is associated with improved recognition of emotional cues or targets, which is reflected by ACC activation.
4.Role in registering pain :Emotional reaction to pain.
Again,the detection of Sin,Halal and Haram,Right and Wrong and then adapting appropriate behavior,all are related to the response of heart.
Indeed, those who disbelieve – it is all the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them – they will not believe.
Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil. And for them is a great punishment.(2:6-7)
So you see those in whose hearts is disease hastening into [association with] them, saying, “We are afraid a misfortune may strike us.” But perhaps Allah will bring conquest or a decision from Him, and they will become, over what they have been concealing within themselves, regretful.(5:52)
Those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without an authority having come to them – great is hatred [of them] in the sight of Allah and in the sight of those who have believed. Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant.(40:35)
Seal upon hearts or diseased heart – The signals from the brain and towards the brain are not triggering that response which makes a man to think,understand,analyze and modify his behavior.
The signals are not effecting heart properly.
He would have no sense of right and wrong,no error detection,no repentance and no improved behavior.
Or do they say, “He has invented about Allah a lie”? But if Allah willed, He could seal over your heart. And Allah eliminates falsehood and establishes the truth by His words. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts.(42:24)
Breast or chest contains lungs and heart so not only the degree of satisfaction,ease,anxiety or exertion but also the hearts and thinking and actions.
Have you seen he who has taken as his god his [own] desire, and Allah has sent him astray due to knowledge and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil? So who will guide him after Allah ? Then will you not be reminded?(45:23)
Hearing could fire signals but here,no signals to the brain and heart stimulating response needed.
And the heart of Moses’ mother became empty [of all else]. She was about to disclose [the matter concerning] him had We not bound fast her heart that she would be of the believers.(28:10)
Yes,the emotional cognition/intelligence.
And We had certainly established them in such as We have not established you, and We made for them hearing and vision and hearts. But their hearing and vision and hearts availed them not from anything [of the punishment] when they were [continually] rejecting the signs of Allah ; and they were enveloped by what they used to ridicule.(46:26)
Say, “It is He who has produced you and made for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful.”(67:23)
Hearing,vision and hearts : Yes,all are parts of sensory system.
Hearing and vision receive stimulus from outside and Heart from Inside i.e. interoception.
And keep yourself patient [by being] with those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the evening, seeking His countenance. And let not your eyes pass beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life, and do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever [in] neglect.(18:28)
There is no recalling of memory and no sensory stimulus to activate that response of heart.
Indeed in that is a reminder for whoever has a heart or who listens while he is present [in mind].(50:37)
Again,memory or a sensory stimulus.
No disaster strikes except by permission of Allah . And whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things.(64:11)
Guiding Heart i.e keeping all these particular signals upright.
Good sense of right and wrong,repentance,sense of ones responsibility,ones relation with Allah and behaving correctly.
[Are] men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer and giving of zakah. They fear a Day in which the hearts and vision will [fearfully] turn about (24:37)
Not only these special functions of hearts would be effected but I think every function including the heart rate,blood pressure etc would be effected by the great Disaster of Qiyamah.
These factors also influence the vision.The high blood pressure reduces vision or even there might be the bleeding.
Note the sequence,first of all heart and then vision.
So by mercy from Allah , [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah . Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him].(3:159)
Social emotions and actions from insular cortex.
And if you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, then a security deposit [should be] taken. And if one of you entrusts another, then let him who is entrusted discharge his trust [faithfully] and let him fear Allah , his Lord. And do not conceal testimony, for whoever conceals it – his heart is indeed sinful, and Allah is Knowing of what you do.(2:283)
Either the Heart is not sending those triggers or receiving the proper stimulus to activate anterior cingulate’s error detection.
Allah has sent down the best statement: a consistent Book wherein is reiteration. The skins shiver therefrom of those who fear their Lord; then their skins and their hearts relax at the remembrance of Allah . That is the guidance of Allah by which He guides whom He wills. And one whom Allah leaves astray – for him there is no guide.(39:23)
Note it that here,the stimulus is from the skin,another sensory organ effecting these particular triggers of Heart to the brain.
The heart did not lie [about] what it saw.(53:11)
The signals for error detection and consciousness were working.
When he came to his Lord with a sound heart (37:84)
Each and every such trigger of heart was Excellent
Say, “Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel – it is [none but] he who has brought the Qur’an down upon your heart, [O Muhammad], by permission of Allah , confirming that which was before it and as guidance and good tidings for the believers.” (2:97)
Quran upon Heart.
Sense of right and wrong
Control of actions.
Yes,it was revealed on Heart of our Holy Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.w.
Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful.(14:37)
Social emotions,again the signals are triggered by heart which are sent to brain.
And [mention] when Abraham said, “My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead.” [ Allah ] said, “Have you not believed?” He said, “Yes, but [I ask] only that my heart may be satisfied.” [ Allah ] said, “Take four birds and commit them to yourself. Then [after slaughtering them] put on each hill a portion of them; then call them – they will come [flying] to you in haste. And know that Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.”(2:260)
Satisfaction of Heart means conscious awareness for which the signals would be sent from heart to brain.